Children on the brink

Children on the brink

Zimbabwe offers a frightening window onto orphanhood, another aspect of the epidemic’s development impact. In this nation, where over a quarter of the 5.5 million adults are HIV-infected, AIDS is already pushing hundreds of thousands of children to the brink. The government estimates that in two years’ time 2400 Zimbabweans a week will be dying of AIDS. Most of those deaths will be in adults, and they will be concentrated in the young adult ages when people are building up…

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Deteriorating child survival

Deteriorating child survival

The dismal decline in life expectancy is due not only to deaths of adults–most of them young or in early middle age–but also to child deaths. HIV is contributing substantially to rising child mortality rates in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa, reversing years of hard-won gains in child survival. By 2005-2010, for example, 61 of every 1000 infants born in South Africa are expected to die before the age of one year. In the absence of AIDS, infant mortality would…

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Wiping out the gains of development

Wiping out the gains of development

Life expectancy at birth is one of the key measures that policy-makers look at to assess human development. Because of the extra deaths from AIDS in children and young adults, this indicator is giving off alarm signals. According to a just-released report prepared by the United Nations Population Division in collaboration with UNAIDS and WHO, the epidemic will wipe out precious development gains by slashing life expectancy. The impact on life expectancy is proportional to the severity of the local…

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A health crisis and beyond

A health crisis and beyond

For many years, AIDS was referred to as “the invisible epidemic”. HIV makes its silent way through a population for many years before infections develop into symptomatic AIDS and become a cause of recurring illness and, finally, death. The virus thus spread stealthily for years before AIDS deaths were registered in any significant numbers. In industrialized countries AIDS activists succeeded in raising the profile of the epidemic early on. But in the developing world where most men and women with…

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Regional HIV/AIDS statistics and features, December 1998

Regional HIV/AIDS statistics and features, December 1998

The virus is firmly embedded in the general population, among women whose only risk behaviour is having sex with their own husbands. In a study of nearly 400 women attending STD clinics in Pune, 93% were married and 91% had never had sex with anyone but their husband. All of these women were infected with a sexually transmitted disease, and a shocking 13.6% of them tested positive for HIV. In Eastern Europe and in Latin America and the Caribbean, infections are concentrated in…

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Regional roundup

Regional roundup

Sub-Saharan Africa is home to 70% of the people who became infected with HIV this year. It is also the region in which four-fifths of all AIDS deaths occurred in 1998. Africa, the global epicentre, continues to dwarf the rest of the world on the AIDS balance sheet. Since the start of the epidemic, 83% of all AIDS deaths so far have been in the region. Among children under 15, Africa’s share of new 1998 infections was 9 out of 10….

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AIDS and the infectious disease picture

AIDS and the infectious disease picture

According to recent WHO estimates, malaria causes over 1 million deaths a year. In 1998, AIDS deaths totalled some 2.5 million. Both diseases are among the five top killers worldwide. However, it is important not to overlook the dynamics in this picture. Already in 1954, millions of people were dying annually of malaria. AIDS is a still-emerging epidemic whose death toll rises every year, while the ranks of the newly infected swell by some 16 000 a day. Tuberculosis, the…

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Anatomy of the epidemic

Anatomy of the epidemic

Global summary By the end of 1998, according to new estimates from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of people living with HIV (the virus that causes AIDS) will have grown to 33.4 million, 10% more than just one year ago. The epidemic has not been overcome anywhere. Virtually every country in the world has seen new infections in 1998 and the epidemic is frankly out of control in many…

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HIV/AIDS: The Global Epidemic (1998)

HIV/AIDS: The Global Epidemic (1998)

Global summary of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, December 1998 People newly infected with HIV in 1998 Total 5.8 million Adults 5.2 million Women 2.1 million Children <15 years 590,000 No. of people living with HIV/AIDS Total 33.4 million Adults 32.2 million Women 13.8 million Children <15 years 1.2 million AIDS deaths in 1998 Total 13.9 million Adults 10.7 million Women 4.7 million Children <15 years 3.2 million

Evaluation of Empty Capsules for Norvir

Evaluation of Empty Capsules for Norvir

Disclaimer: The following document describes a method for putting liquid ritonavir (Norvir) into capsules so that the capsules can be swallowed without experiencing the bad taste of the liquid preparation. Some patients have used this method to make the medication palatable. Although the method should work in theory, it has not been tested in patients. Specifically, no testing has been done to prove that the desired blood level of ritonavir is achieved with medication taken by this method. Persons who…

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